The 17 Powers Continued; Citizenship, Money, Copyrights and More

Lets see what else Congress is supposed to do.

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

Congress establishes how you get to be a citizen of these United States, and how to deal with Bankruptcies. Since the courts are a product of the government, that last one makes sense. And they have to be uniform aka equal. Not anymore.

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

Printing money, determine its value, and what value we place on foreign money. So getting off the gold standard wasn’t unconstitutional…just stupid. And the standard weights and measures was defining what a pound was, etc. as the States understood it. Every notice the standard ton or metric ton?

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of the United States;

Obvious. Making laws against counterfeiting.

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

The Post Office is a function of the government, and ways to get to homes to deliver mail. Its also in the red, feel free to let the free market handle it. In fact it did, in the form of Lysander Spooner who was so good at his job, Congress made it illegal to compete with the Post Office.

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

This is usually interpreted as giving grants to science and art. But note how the sentence is structured. “…by securing for…the exclusive Right to…” This is why we have copyright and patent laws. Nothing about funding, just making sure you have protection from the intellectual property theft.

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

Lower levels of Federal Courts under the Supreme Court, i.e District and Federal Court of Appeals.

So Enumerated Powers to 4-9 covers citizenship, bankruptcies, money, standardizing measurements, counterfeiting, post office, copyright and patent laws, and lower courts. Eight more to go.

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